Finance Princeton WV
Finance encompasses a wide range of concerns, all dealing with the management of funds, which usually refers to money, but can also mean investments in things like stocks and commodities. The basics of the science of finance include saving and spending money and how time and risk will affect the growth of a person's funds. There are different levels of finance, ranging from the personal to the public to corporate, and the people and institutions involved in each kind have varying financial issues that often become more complex as the number of people involved gets bigger (i.e. large organizations and businesses). Financial economics studies financial variables in the economy, financial markets and instruments like stocks, bonds derivatives and others and how those markets are regulated.
Accounting is a system of maintaining and analyzing the finances of a company. An accountant can determine the position of a business through the analysis of income and expenses and is often charged with communicating financial information to the shareholders and managers of the firm. The practice of accounting also includes recording financial transactions, generally called bookkeeping, and auditing, or assessing a company's financial statements and how they are presented by the company's management.
Banks offer a growing number of services to customers of all kinds, in order to cover the needs of people with vastly different financial needs. From the most basic savings accounts to investment services, loans, credit cards, underwriting bonds, and more there are services for individuals, organizations, companies and other large organizations. With the advent of technological advances banking has moved onto the Internet, providing people access to their accounts outside of strict banking hours and the ability to closely monitor their finances and investments. Different types of banks specialize in different services and have different advantages, like commercial banks dealing with corporate finances, offshore banks, which have low taxation and regulation, and private banks that cater to the needs of high net worth clients.
Investment banks raise capital for large corporations and governments through issuing securities, assist in mergers and acquisitions and provide other services like trading derivatives, commodities and equity securities. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulates investment bankers, who must all be licensed broker-dealers. Many of these institutions are made up of a buy side, which deals with pension funds, mutual funds and hedge funds, and a sell side, which deals with trading and promoting securities. They help both corporations who wish to issue securities and investors wishing to buy, and are very important in the process of issuing security offerings.
Preparing and filing tax forms often requires the knowledge of a tax professional or CPA in order to find tax advantages and benefits, as well as to make certain of the accuracy and completion of the proper forms. Taxes are applied to a wide variety of things including income, property, sales and much more, and the laws governing these taxes vary between states. Aside from financial professionals, tax software have been developed to help those struggling to understand tax forms and filing procedures. For individuals, or more commonly, companies, with more complex tax issues, advisory services are usually necessary to avoid audits by the IRS.